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News/Business. Daljit Dhaliwal. (2010) (CC) (Stereo)

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China 22, United States 16, Afghanistan 16, Us 15, Taliban 13, India 9, Iraq 5, New York 4, America 3, Emma 3, London 3, U.s. 3, Rosalind P. Walter 2, Martin Himel 2, Washington 2, Beijing 2, Toyota 2, Dhaliwal 2, U.s. China 2, Iran 2,
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  WHUT    Worldfocus    News/Business. Daljit  
   Dhaliwal.  (2010)  (CC) (Stereo)  

    January 28, 2010
    7:00 - 7:30pm EST  

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tonight on "worldfocus" -- world leaders plot a road map out of afghanistan and pledge tens of millions of dollars to buy the loyalties of the taliban. plus, we will take you to one corner of afghanistan, where the locals created their own militia and drove the taliban out. in our signature segment, a remarkable woman in india, providing hope and inspiration to those in the lowest class. and what newly discovered ruins in mexico may tell us about the demise of the civilization. from the different perspectives of reporters and analysts around the world, this is "worldfocus." major support has been provided by rosalind p. walter and the peter g. peterson foundation, dedicated to promoting fiscal responsibility and addressing
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key economic challenges facing america's future. and additional funding is provided by the following supporters -- good evening, welcome to "worldfocus." i'm daljit dhaliwal in new york. we start off tonight with the war in afghanistan, and a conference in london that brought together high level officials, including foreign ministers from dozens of countries, to discuss afghanistan's future. the aim is to turn over security duties to afghan forces and turn at least some of the taliban from enemies to potential allies. in their final communication, the leaders agreed to start transferring security responsibiliti forces late this year, or early next year. president hamid karzai said that training the afghans could take five to ten years. and that foreign troops might be
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needed for 15 years. in tonight's lead focus, we're going to hr about another key component of the emerging afghanistan strategy. from london, chris ship of itn tells us about the newly devised plan to win over the taliban by buying their support. >> reporter: it is easy to be cynical about the conference in afghanistan. in a stately mansion in london where they ate sea bass for lunch. but 60 countries are here today, working on an international plan to end the grueling conflict which has been dragging on for nine years. for the first time the world's military and diplomat elite are preparing a high-risk strategy of buying off the taliban and talking to their leaders. >> let us welcome the plans from president karzai and the government of afghanistan. for an afghan led peace and
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reintegration program that offers insurgents a way back into mainstream ife. on the condition that they continue to renounce violence, cut any ties with al qaeda and all other terrorist groups. >> reporter: the leaders will back a multimillion pound fund to split taliban fighters. into those motivated by ideology and those motivated by money. the military alone cannot win this war, it means a political settlement with the taliban is becoming a harsh reality. >> we must reach out to all of our countrymen. especially our disenchanted brothers, who are not part of al qaeda, or other interests. >> reporter: that will involve members of the taliban previously targeted and direct campaigns with u.s. and u.k. forces. >> yes, but if they put down
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their weapons and accept the afghan democracy, i don't see any problem with their reintegration into the afghan society. >> reporter: iran is a notable absentee from these talks, where the international coalition knows it does not have long before public good will toward afghantan runs dry. >> even before today's meeting, efforts were being made to buy the support of afghans who might turn against the taliban. the new york times reports that the leaders of one of the largest tribes in southeast afghanistan are fed up with the taliban and ha battle the insurgents. the paper says in exchange for their support, american commanders agreed to channel $1 million in development projects directly to the tribal leaders, and bypass the local afghan government, which is widely seen as corrupt. as a tribal elder explained, the taliban has been trying to destroy our tribe and they're taking money from us.
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and they're taking our sons to fight. in northern afghanistan, another local effort to drive out the taliban has been highly successful. it's in the province of kunduz where the german military has part of its force. our german partner went to the region to report on how the people organized a militia to drive the people out. tonight a fascinating look at a grassroots campaign against the insurgents. >> reporter: the trip takes some 2.5 hours, over a river and through the desert. the area around the town northwest of kunduz is free of taliban. we asked local leaders what it was like living under the taliban and how they managed to chase them out. >> translator: in the summer we couldn't even leave our homes, that's how bad the taliban terrorized us. clinics were closed, girls schools were burned down.
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we couldn't allow that situation to continue. >> translator: every family here has at least one weapon, we pulled them out and joined in. we formed a militia, and within six weeks we ran them out of here. >> reporter: in more peaceful times, commander nabi ran a fish restaurant. in recent years he's been in many battles and won most of them. he didn't fight against the taliban for the money, for him, it's a matter of personal honor and national freedom. >> translator: one of my relatives was kill first battle. the taliban attacked us here. they shot at us from all sides. but with the help of god, we defeated the taliban in the end. >> reporter: they seized these motorcycles from the taliban. because there's not much happening here, they take us on a patrol. they call themselves the young lions. bold militia fighters can be
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dangerous. elsewhere in afghanistan, marauding militia have been just as bad as the taliban or worse. but the governor of kunduz isn't worried, he's proud of the lions. >> translator: 50 of these militia fighters are worth 500 other soldiers. we give these young men a future with the police or military. we'll have to see. >> reporter: these afghans have found their own solution of the taliban. the chief tells us t area has been secured. the terrorists are far away, deep in the desert. >> for more on efforts to enlist afghan tribesmen to fight the tail began, we are joined by marissa kirisal. thank you very much for joining us. >> thanks for having me. >> we just heard these two
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success sties about afghan tribesmen who are taking on the taliban. is this strategy going to work in the long run on a much wider level as we move forward? >> there are a couple things to keep in mind. first, afghanistan is a very decentralized country. all power is local in afghanistan. efforts that work in one or two communities may not work in the exact same way in other communities. they may have to be tailored or the situation may be so different that efforts that work somewhere may not work somewhere else. the second problem is that the short term strategies of working with militia's instead of going through the central government, in the long run, often lead to problems with building central government capacity, which is one of the objectives of the united states and its partners. it may be portant for security gains in the short run, but it poses a long term issue. >> it sounds similar to the approach general petrais employed in iraq.
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is it similar or different? >> it's very different. the tribes came to the united states and asked for our help in dealing with al qaeda, which was in their midst. al qaeda were outsiders in iraq, and governing in certain parts of the anbar province. the locals didn't like that, and they wanted u.s. help in getting rid of al qaeda. they came to the united states and the united states responded to help them. in afghanistan, it's not so clear that the initiative is coming from the local communities. it seems much more driven by the international community to address the security situation, and that means that the dynamics are going to be very different than what they were in iraq. >> in terms of the obstacles to the approach in afghanistan, what would you say the main ones are, that did not exist in iraq? >> the main one is that in afghanistan, the taliban is integrated into many communities. the reason why it can be difficult to tell taliban members from nontaliban members, they're integrated into the community and their disputes are
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localized there. in iraq, they were outsiders that came in, and it was easy to tell who they were. the great difficulty in afghanistan is that they're integrated into the community and that makes it very difficult to come up with permanent solutions to the kind of conflicts that are going on. loyalties can shift very quickly in afghanistan to favor whichever side is winning. >> okay. thank you very much for joining us. >> thank you. iran escalated its campaign today against opponents of the regime. it announced that this man and another accused of involvement in an armed opposition group were executed today by hanging. these pictures were shown on iran's state controlled television during their trial. although the men were arrested before the protests that followed last summer's presidential election. they were put before the same mass trial as opposition leaders and activists arrested during the crackdown on the protest
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movement. after its massive recall of calls inhe united states, toyota announced today that it is recalling 75,000 vehicles in china. all of them the rav4 sports utility vehicle manufactured in china over the last year. earlier today, toyota announced it was recalling some vehicles in europe for a similar gas pedal problem that might cause unexpected acceleration. and in southern mexico, archaeologists think they may have discovered new clues into why the mayan civilization started to collapse starting around the year 820. an 1100-year-old mayan tomb. in it they found an urn and skeletal remains as well as ceramic heads. while many excerpts point to internal warfare as part of the mayan civilization downfall, experts say artifacts from
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another culture were also found in the tomb, suggesting that they may have taken over. while the overwhelming focus of president obama's state of the union address last night was on jobs and economic recovery, the president said the united states can no longer afford to stand by as other economic powers including china, become more competitive. >> you see, washington has been telling us to wait for decades. even if the problems have grown worse. meanwhile, china's not waiting to revamp its economy. germany is not waiting. india's not waiting. these nations are -- they're not standing still. these nations aren't playing for
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second place. they're putting more emphasis on math and science, they're rebuilding their infrastructure. they're making serious investments in clean energy, because they want those jobs. i do not accept second place for the united states of america. >> and that takes us to the final installment of our two-week long series that we call obama and the world. tonight our focus is china, and we're joined by adam seigel. a senior fellow in china studies at the council on foreign relations. and by john deluri, the associated director of the centers for u.s. china relations at the asia society right here in new york. gentlemen, welcome to the program, thank you for being with us. 100 years from now, is this going to be viewed as the period that china started to assume global supremecy? should the united states be worried? >> china has a lot of room to
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grow, and they have a huge population. when you look at it at least in economic terms, they're expected to surpass japan this year as the number two sized economy in the world. they've surpsed germany. as the top exporting company of course, you have to divide that by 1.3 billion people. it's still a very poor country per capita. a lot what we're hearing now sometimes gets exaggerated. there's a lot of anxiety being projected on china. >> do you believe, adam, it's exaggerated? >> i think china has fundamental weaknesses that we forget about. it's overwhelmingly a poor country, it has massive environmental issues, social inequalities. but i think the other issue, if china were to be accepting responsibilities, that would be a good thing for the united states. if we saw china taking more responsibility for rebuilding afghanistan, or putting more pressure on iran and north korea. what we've seen so far is that the chinese seem to be lagging, given how big their
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international economy is, given how they are as an economic player, they are not in the same role. >> some of the lagging may be strategic. it could be intentional in china's part. they set out a foreign policy motto of keeping your head down and waiting for the right time. and i think that probably still does guide a lot of china's foreign policy. if you look at something like the idea of g2 whichs being talked about in davos right now, this idea of the united states and china forming this new bipolar order, there's really a lot of resistance from china. it's not in accord with their long-term approach. i think they're playing a long-term game, where they are building up the political capital and they're not eager to accept the burdens of responsibility right now. >> let's get into some of the points of friction in the
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u.s./china relationship. one source of disagreement is the u.s. arm sales to taiwan. why are the chinese so upset about this? and why is the united states going to go ahead with it? >> chinese consider taiwan to be a part of china. and we, the united states, agreed that we would slowly wind down our arms sales to taiwan, given the situation in the region. as it became more peaceful, we would slowly wind down. we haven't done that, because we don't believe the situation has become more peaceful. the chinese continue to threaten taiwan by 1,000 short range missiles that are targeted at taiwan. >> do you think this could derail u.s./china relations in the future? >> the taiwan issue -- i mean, from the chinese perspective, it's always the most sensitive and explosive. right now there's a lot of positive trends in terms of relations. beijing likes the current government a lot in taiwan, it's a relatively tranquil period
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that we're in. so it's not at the top of the list of hotspots. >> and collectively, taiwan has researched who was one of the three t's, trade and tibet being two of the issues. the president is expected to have a meeting with the dalai lama at some point. previously that meeting has been delayed. what's on the cards in terms of tibet, the united states and china. >> i wouldn't expect any major breakthroughs. i think the president is going to recapture some ground that he lost when he deferred the meeting, and say, yes, the united states would like a resolution of the tibet situation. we would like the chinese to give the tibetans more autonomy, more cultural space. we're not going to change our view that tibet is part of china. >> why do you think the president changed his mind? >> well, i think that he wanted
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to make a gesture. and defer the visit with the dalai lama, and he didn't get much back from the chinese for it. i think the administration is s was probably upset about that. it's not surprising that he's going ahead with the meeting now. there are evidently meetings going on as we speak in beijing, between representatives of the dalai lama and the chinese government. there may be some marginal progress there. we're not talking about big breakthroughs. the other thing to remember is, it is a do. there may be lobbies that care about it in the united states, but it is very much a domestic issue. within china, there's a huge segment of the han majority population, who are fully supportive of some of the hardline policies in tibet. when chinese policy makers are thinking about tibet, their first thought is not washington. >> let's talk about trade. what are the areas of disagreement there? >> well, the major concern is
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the evaluation of the rem-md. it hasn't moved in quite a while. the united states given its economic situation, given its rising unemployment rate, given the president is focused on jobs, there's going to be an increasing pressure on china to do something about rem-md which makes chinese export cheaper to the united states. that, i think, is going to be the primary issue. >> you talk to chinese economists, what they're concerned about is the fact that they have a very unstructured economy, that's dependent on exports and investment and doesn't have enough consumption. and they're not dealing with that issue. >> all right. thank you very much for joining us. >> thank you. that brings us to tonight's question, to level the playing field more in favor of american goods, do you think the united states should impose protectionist measures against china? you can tell us what you think on our website at worldfocus.org.
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finally tonight, our signature segment, a story we read today about women making great strides in india's banking industry got us thinking about another remarkable woman that we met in india last year. this activist has devoted her life to india's lowest caste, literally those who are beaten down. worldfocus special correspondent martin himel travelled to india last spring and brought us her inspiring story then. >> reporter: emma is praying for the strength to create real change. to improve the life of her fellow dalits. the untouchables of india's caste society. emma is a union activist and college gradte.
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she's trying to convince these women, the wives of laborers that they are entitled to compensation should their husbands become ill on the job. their children have rned the right to equal schooling, along with children of higher castes. these rents complain the children are forced to eat separately in schools with different plates and utensils. >> it is terrible that the caste system is prevalent in the 21st century, and this is happening inelhi, imagine what the conditions are in the villages. >> reporter: apart from the women, she tries to drum up support among the day laborers. [ chanting ] >> reporter: when you started off, there were men even among the dalits that saw you as a threat. how did you deal with this? >> of course -- >> translator: when i started working, i was very young. i was barely 23 years d.
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a lot of people used to hang around drunk. they used to whistle at me and tease me. i ignored them, this went on for six months. i didn't give up. but one day someone crossed the limit. i got very angry, and held him by his collar and gave him three or four slaps. afterwards those workers realized this girl has some real guts. the workers even congratulated me that evening. >> reporter: the biggest challenge is the battle for better future for dalits children. ♪ >> reporr: she's established mobile education centers deep in the delhi slums. we cannot do it alone they sing, but if we act together we can turn the world upside down. there's still a caste system in india, it's a problem. do you think you'll ever marry?
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>> translator: it is a matter of dignity. if the boy or his family look down upon me, then i am not willing to compromise. only someone who doesn't believe in the caste system and who is open minded, he is the one with whom i would spend my life, no one else. >> reporter: unmarried, she lives with her mother and father. her brother and his family come over. she deeply wishes for children of her own. home has always been a personal battlefield. her mother was married off to her father at the age of 11. when she dared to pass the university entrance exams, he locked her in the house to prevent her from getting an education. >> translator: it was a very difficult time for me. my biggest support during those
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times was my mother. my mother is completely illiterate, she cannot even sign her name. she has gone through the pain of being illiterate and being a victim of child marriage. she decided that she would educate her daughter, whatever may be. my father beat her up for this. even today she has to listen to a lot of comments from him. look at your daughter, what is that she keeps doing? who does she keep hanging out with? but my mother never lost her determination. she is my sacred guru.
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>> reporter: emma carries her mother's spirit when she prays. after appealing to the gods she builds a simple house. it's a house of stone. but what she prays for is a house of her own. a house of love. a house of acceptance, not only for herself, but also for the more than 160 million dalits living in india. for worldfocus this is martin himel in new delhi. that is worldfocus for this thursday evening. for much more news and perspective, and tell us what you think, don't forget to go to our website at worldfocus.org. i'm daljit dhaliwal in new york,
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we'll see you back here at the same time tomorrow. until then, good-bye. -- captions by vitac -- www.vitac.com major support for "worldfocus" has been provided by rosalind p. walter and the peter g. peterson foundation, dedicated to promoting fiscal responsibility and addressing key economic challenges facing america's future. and additional funding is provided by the following supporters -- e
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